# Graphene and the Dome over the flat Earth – part 2 –

While writing my first article about the dome, I proved the physical need for a rigid vault acting as a ceiling. In the lack of an enclosure top, the atmosphere would diffuse, with all its gases, in the outer space. Hence you can understand the absolute necessity of the presence of a dome. It’s the only way to obtain a stratification, with the lighter gases rising to the upper layers under the top. That is a clear demonstration of the existence of a solid top over the flat earth.

Now I would like to add some more details about a few characteristics of the celestial vault. Since we do not have the chance to go there and examine it, we just have another possibility left. We have to base our research on reasoning and on the Bible. This way we can give the Creator the word and let Him explain what he has done.

## The Wardencliffe Tower

Tesla’s plant and Wardencliffe tower

Tesla made studies and researches about the electric field of the Earth and indirectly he can make us understand something more about the Dome. He was comparing the Earth to a big capacitor, a container filled with an enormous quantity of energy stored in ether, a mean through which the light can move. He discovered a new form of energy moving as longitudinal waves similar to the sound waves in the elastic ether. Tesla was thinking to a way for using this energy and designed a power plant able to extract and transmit it, all over the world. It should be understood that the Wardencliffe tower was an important component of his plant.

# Is the Earth a battery? A capacitor?

Many people think that this tower was intended to be a sort of antenna but, in the intention of the inventor, it was a big capacitor. It should be noted that the shape of the active part of this capacitor has the possible shape of the Earthly dome.

You know that, since the Earth is flat, gravity cannot exist. Similarly, you  should be aware of two things:

1) The Earth has a magnetic field.

2) It presents electric characteristics creating an alternative gravitational field not responding to Newton’s law.

Tesla discovered the Earth is a capacitor and built an enormous tower with a shape reminding that of the dome.

In the letter to the Hebrews at 1:11 we read about the heavens: “They will perish, but you will remain; and just like a garment, they will all wear out”. So, when you imagine that our cosmos is a big capacitor, made up of two plates corresponding to the Earth and the Dome, you can realize that these two plates are the electrodes of a battery and, as everyone knows,  the electrode in a battery wears out.

Here, to recap a bit, you will find a description of the battery taken from Wikipedia.

John Frederic Daniell (12 March 1790 – 13 March 1845) was an English chemist and physicist. His name is best known for his invention of the Daniell cell, an element of an electric battery much better than voltaic cells.

In the Daniell cell, copper and zinc electrodes are immersed in a solution of copper(II) sulfate and zinc sulfate respectively. At the anode, zinc is oxidized per the following half reaction:

### Daniell Battery

The two half-cell form of the Daniell cell for classroom demonstrations.

Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2e . . (Standard electrode potential -0.7618 V )

At the cathode, copper is reduced per the following reaction:

Cu2+(aq) + 2e → Cu(s) . . (Standard electrode potential +0.340 V )

The total reaction being:

Zn(s) + Cu2+(aq) → Zn2+(aq) + Cu(s) . . ( Open-circuit voltage 1.1018 V )

In classroom demonstrations, a form of the Daniell cell known as two half cells is often used due to its simplicity. The two half-cells each support one-half of the reactions described above. A wire and light bulb may connect the two electrodes. Electrons that are “pulled” from the zinc anode travel through the wire, providing an electrical current that illuminates the bulb. In such a cell, the counterions play an important role. Having a negative charge, the anions build up around the anode to maintain a neutral charge. Conversely, at the cathode, the copper(II) cations discharge to maintain a neutral charge. These two processes accompany the accumulation of copper solid at the cathode and the corrosion of the zinc electrode into the solution as zinc cations.

Since neither half reaction will occur independently of the other, the two half-cells must be connected in a way that will allow ions to move freely between them. A porous barrier or ceramic disk may be used to separate the two solutions while allowing the flow of sulfate ions. When the half cells are placed in two entirely different and separate containers, a salt bridge is often used to connect the two cells. The salt bridge typically contains a high concentration of potassium nitrate (a salt that will not interfere chemically with the reaction in either half-cell). In the above wet-cell during discharge, nitrate anions in the salt bridge move into the zinc half-cell in order to balance the increase in Zn2+ ions. At the same time, potassium ions from the salt bridge move into the copper half-cell in order to replace the Cu2+ ions being discharged.

In the Daniell cell, the porous barrier cannot prevent the flow of copper ions into the zinc half-cell. Hence, recharging (reversing the current flow by an external source of EMF) is impossible because, if the zinc electrode is made to become the cathode, copper ions, rather than zinc ions, will be discharged on account of their lower potential.

So, from the above description, you can realize that the zinc anode wears out and the same should happen to the heavens. Thus, you can suppose that the Earth and the Dome behave as two capacitors plates that are continuously charging as a battery does. If you try a fast research on the web you can find that usually a capacitor can’t be used as a battery, because the energy stored is not so much and is suddenly discharged. Nevertheless, technology is evolving and some kind of supercapacitors, with great quantities of energy stored, seems to be good to be used as a battery. Time and further research will help us to confirm or not these hypotheses.

You can suppose the electrolyte to be formed by the sea water but what are the materials forming the two plates? As far as the earth is concerned, a good material could be Iron that is abundant all over the inferior earthly platform. Iron is the more widespread metal on the Earth and constitutes 16% of the mass of it. But you could as well take into consideration silicates or many other abundant materials. Silicon oxide is what attracts me the most. Quartz (SiO2) is the second most common material in the Earth ( 12% in volume).

As far as the dome is concerned, we’ll examine something new. Let’s consider some of the distinguishing marks that will identify the possible active material necessary for the electrical reaction.

First of all, the Dome should be a sort of mirror. This means that the internal surface of the dome should be formed by a material reflecting the hitting radiations. This is necessary to obtain, for instance, a rainbow. When you want to obtain a rainbow indoor,  you need to have a mirror.

It should be an electrically active material even at any very low temperatures. The Dome is in fact frozen because of its height and distance from the sun. A confirmation o this comes from the Bible where the firmament  (the expanse) is described as frozen. In Ezekiel  1:22 you read: “ Over the heads of the living creatures was the likeness of an expanse that sparkled like awesome ice, stretched out above their heads”.

A characteristic of superconductors is that they conduct electricity at any very low temperatures almost without resistance and thus with high efficiency. As a result, our material should be a superconductor.

It should also be a flexible material at some higher temperatures.  In Isaiah 34:4 we read: “ All the army of the heavens will rot away, and the heavens will be rolled up like a scroll. All their army will wither away, as a withered leaf falls from the vine and a shriveled fig from the fig tree.”

For sure these are incredible characteristics when put all together. Anyway, there is a material that can satisfy all of these requests: graphene.

Here’s an excerpt of what Wikipedia states about this material.

Graphene is an allotrope of carbon in the form of a two-dimensional, atomic-scale, hexagonal lattice in which one atom forms each vertex. It is the basic structural element of other allotropes, including graphite, charcoal, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes. It can be considered as an indefinitely large aromatic molecule, the ultimate case of the family of flat polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

Graphene has many unusual properties. It is about 200 times stronger than the strongest steel. It efficiently conducts heat and electricity and is nearly transparent.

Structure

First isolated by Russian scientists at the University of Manchester back in 2004, graphene is made from a single atom layer of carbon. It is super lightweight, superconductive and super strong.

## Graphene Properties

Graphene sheets are composed of carbon atoms linked in hexagonal shapes, as shown in the following figure, with each carbon atom covalently bonded to three other carbon atoms. Each sheet of graphene is only one atom thick and each graphene sheet is considered a single molecule. Graphene has the same structure of carbon atoms linked in hexagonal shapes to form carbon nanotubes, but graphene is flat rather than cylindrical.

Because of the strength of covalent bonds between carbon atoms, graphene has a very high tensile strength. (Basically, tensile relates to how much you can stretch something before it breaks.)

In addition, graphene, unlike a buckyball or nanotube, has no inside because it is flat. Buckyballs and nanotubes, in which every atom is on the surface, can interact only with molecules surrounding them. For graphene, every atom is on the surface and is accessible from both sides, so there is more interaction with surrounding molecules.

Finally, in graphene, carbon atoms are bonded to only three other atoms, although they have the capability to bond to a fourth atom. This capability, combined with great tensile strength and the high surface area to volume ratio of graphene may make it very useful in composite materials. Researchers have reported that mixing graphene in an epoxy resulted in the same amount of increased strength for the material as was found when they used ten times the weight of carbon nanotubes.

A key electrical property of graphene is its electron mobility (the speed at which electrons move within it when a voltage is applied). Graphene’s electron mobility is faster than any known material and researchers are developing methods to build transistors on graphene that would be much faster than the transistors currently built on silicon wafers.

Another interesting application being developed for graphene takes advantage of the fact that the sheet is only as thick as a carbon atom. Researchers have found that they can use nanopores to quickly analyze the structure of DNA. When a DNA molecule passes through a nanopore which has a voltage applied across it, researchers can determine the structure of the DNA by changes in electrical current. Because graphene is so thin, the structure of a DNA molecule appears at a higher resolution when it passes through a nanopore cut in a graphene sheet.

Excerpted from Nanotechnology For Dummies (2nd edition), from Wiley Publishing

http://www.understandingnano.com/graphene-properties.html

As its name indicates, graphene is extracted from graphite, the material used in pencils. Like graphite, graphene is entirely composed of carbon atoms and 1mm of graphite contains some 3 million layers of graphene. Whereas graphite is a three-dimensional crystalline arrangement, graphene is a two-dimensional crystal only an atom thick. The carbons are perfectly distributed in a hexagonal honeycomb formation only 0.3 nanometers thick, with just 0.1 nanometers between each atom. https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/26/graphene-molecule-potential-wonder-material

Optical

Photograph of graphene in transmitted light. This one-atom-thick crystal can be seen with the naked eye because it absorbs approximately 2.6% of green light and 2.3% of red light.

Stability

Ab initio calculations show that a graphene sheet is thermodynamically unstable if its size is less than about 20 nm (“graphene is the least stable structure until about 6000 atoms”) and becomes the most stable fullerene (as within graphite) only for molecules larger than 24,000 atoms.

Melting point

An early prediction suggested a melting point of ≈4125 K. Recent, more sophisticated, modeling has increased this temperature to at least 5000 K. At 6000 K (the sun’s surface having an effective temperature of 5,777 K) graphene melts into an agglomeration of loosely coupled doubled bonded chains, before becoming a gas.

Mechanical

Graphene is the strongest material ever tested, with an intrinsic tensile strength of 130.5 GPa and Young’s modulus of 1 TPa (150000000 psi). The Nobel announcement illustrated this by saying that a 1 square meter graphene hammock would support a 4 kg cat but would weigh only as much as one of the cat’s whiskers, at 0.77 mg (about 0.001% of the weight of 1 m2 of paper).

As is true of all materials, regions of graphene are subject to thermal and quantum fluctuations in relative displacement. Although the amplitude of these fluctuations is bounded in 3D structures (even in the limit of infinite size), the Mermin–Wagner theorem shows that the amplitude of long-wavelength fluctuations grows logarithmically with the scale of a 2D structure and would, therefore, be unbounded in structures of infinite size.

Fracture toughness

In 2014, researchers indicated that despite its strength, graphene is also relatively brittle, with a fracture toughness of about 4 MPa√m.This indicates that imperfect graphene is likely to crack in a brittle manner like ceramic materials, as opposed to many metallic materials that have fracture toughnesses in the range of 15–50 MPa√m. Later in 2014, the researchers announced that graphene showed a greater ability to distribute force from an impact than any known material, ten times that of steel per unit weight. The force was transmitted at 22.2 kilometers per second (13.8 mi/s).

Biological

Researchers in 2011 discovered the ability of graphene to accelerate the osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells without the use of biochemical inducers.

In 2015 researchers used graphene to create biosensors with epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide. The sensors bind to 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and are capable of selective binding with antibodies. The presence of 8-OHdG in blood, urine, and saliva is commonly associated with DNA damage. Elevated levels of 8-OHdG have been linked to increased risk of several cancers. By the next year, a commercial version of a graphene biosensor was being used by biology researchers as a protein binding sensor platform.

In 2016 researchers revealed that uncoated graphene can be used as a neuro-interface electrode without altering or damaging properties such as signal strength or formation of scar tissue. Graphene electrodes in the body stay significantly more stable than electrodes of tungsten or silicon because of properties such as flexibility, biocompatibility, and conductivity.

Substrate

The electronic properties of graphene are significantly influenced by the supporting substrate.The Si(100)/H surface does not perturb graphene’s electronic properties, whereas the interaction between it and the clean Si(100) surface changes its electronic states significantly. This effect results from the covalent bonding between C and surface Si atoms, modifying the π-orbital network of the graphene layer. The local density of states shows that the bonded C and Si surface states are highly disturbed near the Fermi energy.

This last characteristic should be considered as very interesting, for the dome could be made of different layers of different materials since graphene needs to be supported. The Silicates are the largest, the most interesting, and the most complicated class of minerals by far. Approximately 30% of all minerals are silicates and some geologists estimate that 90% of the Earth’s crust is made up of silicates. With oxygen and silicon the two most abundant elements in the earth’s crust, the abundance of silicates is no real surprise.

To finish I want to mention that batteries with graphene and quartz electrodes have already been prepared.

And with this, I greet my reader. Bye, bye to you, my dear.