Living corals in the great cosmic water

Water in the Universe

Inside the Herbig Haro HH46 Nebula, observers found important quantities of water ice. Within the interstellar clouds of the Milky Way, they postulate the presence of water. Astrophysics believe water is abundant even in other galaxies and in all the universe. They say this is due to the fact that the water components, hydrogen, and oxygen, are among the most abundant elements everywhere.

Nebulae have water in their inside. Scientists say they can detect water in celestial bodies like comets, planets, and satellites. They suppose the existence of water on the moon and on Saturn or Jupiter’s satellites. Ice water trails are probably significant on Mars, Titan, Europe, Enceladus or Triton. It will be the same even on Uranus, Neptune or Pluto.

The Oort Cloud

The Oort Cloud, for instance, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals surrounding the Sun.  A source ( says it is a reserve of cometary nuclei that contain ices dating back to the origins of the solar system. Astronomers think that long-period comets have their origin in the Oort Cloud. Comets are awesome. They’re made of gas, dust, rock, and organic materials smashed together and existing mostly unchanged since the formation of the Solar System.

The origin of water

There exist numerous hypotheses as to how water may have been created on Earth’s surface over the past eras. I found authors suggesting an insightful hypothesis reported by Wikipedia. “Some terrestrial water may have had a biochemical origin, during the Great Oxygenation Event, via redox reactions and photosynthesis.

In the early 1930s, Cornelis van Niel discovered that sulfide-dependent chemoautotrophic bacteria (purple sulfur bacteria) fix carbon and synthesize water as a byproduct of a photosynthetic pathway using hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide: CO2 + 2H2S → CH2O + H2O + 2S

Few modern organisms use this method of photosynthesis, making their water contribution negligible. But on the hydrogen-sulfide-rich and oxygen-poor early Earth, a small but significant portion of Earth’s water may have been synthesized biochemically through this pathway”.

Organic compounds throughout the universe

I find these hints really interesting because they confirm the fact that the earth system is a living organism basically obtained from living critters and build with their contribution. You might have thought of most of the universe as a freezing, uncaring, aseptic place where inorganic elements rule… But you’d be wrong. Astronomers report in the journal Nature that organic compounds of unexpected complexity exist throughout the universe. The results suggest that complex organic compounds are not the sole domain of life but can be made naturally by stars.

Novae producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

An author says: ” How did they discover these organic compounds? During research, they found a bit of mystery – a set of unidentified infrared emissions in stars, galaxies and even interstellar space. For the last twenty years, this spectral signature has been commonly accepted as being PAHs – polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules. By utilizing the Infrared Space Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope, Chinese scientists Kwok and Zhang have shown there’s more there than just a PAH… It’s a lot more complex. Through infra-red emissions and spectral studies, the team has shown that a nova event can produce these compounds in a very short period of time. It can happen within weeks”.

Not only are the stars producing complex organic materials, but they’re pumping them into interstellar space as well. And the idea isn’t new. Kwok had proposed stars as compound factories and Earth Measured research supports his vision. “Our work has shown that stars have no problem making complex organic compounds under near-vacuum conditions,” says Kwok. “Theoretically, this is impossible, but observationally we can see it happening.”

Stars generating Coal and Petroleum

Some of the structures are actually so complex that they resemble coal and petroleum.They are the kinds of organic matter you could generally only associate with living organisms. Organic macromolecules could be detected even in the lower cloud layers of Venus. Actually, stars are not only generating complex organic matter, but they are filling up space with it.

Green Grape Alga


Please, try to imagine the beginning. All around the outer-earthly circle, beyond the actual Antarctic, there were the right conditions for Madreporaria to prosper. Generally, they grow on a solid base submerged under the sea water. They prefer rocky, not sandy bottoms and live in salty, warm, clear waters. Saltiness and temperature are the most important factors. Madreporaria thrives in tropical ocean areas of the Pacific, Indian and the Atlantic.

A  coral canopy over the earth

But now, let’ imagine a different environment: the water dome and its original foundations. A strong trellis has to be built in order to create some shelter over the earth. Imagine having a garden to arrange in your back courtyard. First, you want to fix a few poles to support the vine branches of your lush Virginia creeper. Something similar maybe happened at the beginning. A solid, rocky structure was provided for the heavenly canopy.

A structure made with coral calcareous skeletons

Coral reefs took form in shallow oceans areas by the aid of algae and the calcareous skeletons of certain coelenterates, of which coral polyps are the most important. A coral reef may grow into a permanent coral island becoming the home to a spectacular variety of organisms. It is actually a complex framework of living organisms and blue-green algal mats. The accumulation of carbonate sand and mud provides a habitat for seagrasses, mangroves and a variety of other critters.

Corals and other reef-building organisms

Most reef corals are colonial. Initial polyps divide themselves into daughter polyps, and they divide in turn. All held together in one continuous rigid calcareous skeleton. They remain attached to the seafloor and become large and heavy. Under the right conditions, the corals grow profusely side by side, even on and over each other. They build limestone because their skeletons are made of calcium carbonate. Calcareous algae (stony seaweeds), mollusksechinoderms, and protozoans also contribute to the reef. Some, especially the corals, provide the main structural framework of the growing reef.


The reef becomes true rock by chemical transformation of reef material. The shape of coral reefs is also the result of changes in sea level during the successive geologic eras. As sea level was rising during the times, new reef growth mantled the older landscape.

Origin and Development of Reefs

Charles Darwin concluded in 1842 that oceanic atoll reefs began as reefs fringing a volcanic island. Subsidence of the land fringed was thought to allow the reef to grow upward (and outward over its own fore-reef debris). Maximum growth would occur at the seaward edge. Lagoons would develop between the ascending barrier, or atoll reef and the land or volcanic cone. When the volcanic cone became completely submerged, the atoll lagoon would contain only coral islands.

Some imagination

So let’s imagine the circle of the earth behaving as a bigger atoll. It was ultimately able to develop in the firmament we can admire either by night or during the hours of daylight. Winds and currents were important in shaping the dome. Seawater was probably supersaturated in calcium carbonate available for the skeleton-forming process.

Biological factors

One of the most significant determinants of reef accumulation is the presence of zooxanthellae in the living tissues of all reef corals. Zooxanthellae represent the vegetative stages of dinoflagellate algae. Their association with reef corals is symbiotic. They greatly aid in the formation of the coral skeleton. A constant supply of food in the form of zooplankton is essential to reef corals, which are carnivorous.  The zooplankton supply is dependent on an adequate phytoplankton supply. The phytoplankton, in turn, requires an adequate supply of plant nutrients dissolved in the water.

You could find useful the reading of


Of course, this is not such an easy idea to accept, but luminescent living critters are the main constituents of stars.They are madrepores, luminescent corals, luminescent bacteria. Moreover, sponges, anemones, algae, water krill, plankton and so on.

In order to understand the real setting of the dome, of course, there are still many points to imagine.For instance, how is the moving dome safely sealed in order not to disperse waters with their rich treasure of “living stars” inside? What sort of hydraulic closes and dams is working to pull waters upward after they have fallen down? Which kind of cooling system could be imagined to keep waters at the right temperatures? You will find more about all this by reading my book:

 Dossier 111 – The real Measures of the Flat Earth (edited by

It’s a work our team has been pondering during the last two years.

It will be soon available through

Coming next week and, just for now, bye, bye, my reader.

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