Membranes operating in the human body
Membranes, that appear in nature to protect organisms from the external aggressions, can be useful to understand more about the dome. Since we cannot go to the extremities of the earth and personally check the operations occurring inside the dome, we can only rely on reasoning. Certainly, we know the world we live inside is a fractal universe where the same principles are constantly repeated and confirmed. So, we could resort to the old alchemic principle that recited “as above, so below”. This means that we can keep searching inside us, or in our near proximity, examples showing how the natural world operates to solve problems. What does nature perform in order to protect frail and delicate organisms from the exterior dangers? The cell membranes, the egg membranes, the eye membranes, the brain membranes or the ring membranes of a tree are complex entities that are in constant relation with the outside world and need safeguarding. In all these cases, the membranes are operating to isolate, by means of various coatings, the different operations of the living organisms. So let’s start considering the many layers that are protecting the human eye.
The human eye membranes
The human eye is surrounded by many and many layers which protect the cornea and the vitreous fluid. Many believe that the 1st layer of the eye is the cornea, but it is actually the tear film. The tear film is made up of three layers: oil, water, and mucus. These layers keep the eye hydrated, nourished and free from harmful bacteria.
The 2nd layer of the human eye is the cornea, a transparent dome-shaped tissue that consists of other different 5 layers. The main purpose of the cornea is to help focus light that is entering the eye. Behind the cornea is the anterior chamber, an area where aqueous humor fluid flows in and out to rehydrate and nourish the cornea.
The iris and the vitreous humor
The 3 rd layer of the eye is the iris and the iris has 3 inside layers.
After the iris is a transparent crystalline lens, which is composed of 4 layers. The lens acts by focusing light rays onto the retina. However, before the light rays hit the retina, it will first go through the posterior chamber and the vitreous humor, which makes up 80% of the entire eye.
The vitreous humor is a clear, jelly-like substance that helps retain the shape of the eye.
The 5th and the innermost layer of the eye is the retina. It has a total of 10 layers that have light-sensitive cells which include rods and cones. These light-sensitive cells create signals that travel down the optic nerve and to the back of the brain for further understanding of what we are seeing.
The 6th layer of the eye is the choroid, which is filled with blood vessels that help supply blood to the retina.
Sclera and retina membranes
Finally, the last layer of the eye is the sclera, a white tissue that covers the whole eye (until the cornea) with muscles attached to allow movement of the eye in the eye socket.
Layers of the retina are including the choroid and sclera. Although, besides the many layers within the eye, there are also many other processes such as the ciliary body which produces the aqueous humor in the anterior chamber and suspensory ligaments that keep the lens in place.
Moreover, the optic nerve contains the ganglion cell axons running to the brain and, additionally, incoming blood vessels that open into the retina to vascular the retinal layers and neurons.
Layers of the Human Eye – UCLA Student Health
www.studenthealth.ucla.edu>Layers of t…
The choroid membranes
At this point, keeping in mind the main theme we are discussing, I would like to attract attention on the special frame of the choroid. This is one of the three main layers, all of them made up of many different coatings, forming the uvea of the human eye. The name is possibly a reference to its reddish-blue or almost black color, wrinkled appearance and grape-like size and shape when stripped intact from a cadaveric eye.
The trabecular meshwork
The choroid is a pigmented and highly vascular membrane of the eye functioning to nourish the retina and absorb scattered light. It is made up of a trabecular meshwork responsible for draining the aqueous humor from the eye. The tissue is spongy and lined by trabeculocytes and allows fluids to drain into a set of tubes flowing into the blood system. All this is something really interesting when comparing the eye to the celestial dome.
The trabecular meshwork is a pore-like structure formed by small spongy spaces with auto-similar, fractal characteristics even on different micro-scale dimensions. This will give to the structure the power to resist stresses from hydrostatic pressure and muscle tractions. Something similar is evident in long bones such femur.
The femur cancellous bone
Cancellous bone is synonymous with trabecular or spongy bone. This makes it softer, and weaker but more flexible. The greater surface area also makes it suitable for metabolic activities such as the exchange of calcium ions. Cancellous bone is typically found at the ends of long bones, near to joints and within the interior of vertebrae. Cancellous bone is highly vascular and frequently contains red bone marrow. (Wikipedia)
So, the discussion we are doing has the aim to show analogies with the operations performed by the celestial dome over the earth. It is formed by two main big layers like a motor that is made up of two different parts, one stationary, the stator, and one moving, the rotor. To avoid friction between them a middle watery layer is performing functions similar to those fulfilled by the choroid in the uvea.
The synovial membrane in the knees
Here we are talking about the huge layer 1110km thick that contains the upper fluid waters of the earth with the aim to avoid friction between the stator and the rotor of the dome and to drain and filtrate inner waters. It is a function somewhat similar to the one performed by the synovial membrane in the knees. This is a fluid lubricant that lines the inner surface of capsules of the knee joints. Providing a plane of separation and disconnection between solid tissues it allows movement to occur on the bearing surfaces which are moving on each other freely. It also makes that the joint can be kept under slight suction. This is probably an operation similarly performed by the 1110km watery layer of the dome.
H.W.M. Olbers (1758-1840) is famous for an intriguing paradox: Why is the sky dark at night? Assuming that space is infinite and filled with stars, he suggested, the entire sky should be as bright as the surface of the sun. The question had originally been raised by Kepler. One of the explanation sometimes suggested is that our universe is finite both in time and place, and the total amount of matter and energy is far too small to light up the night sky. So, let’s investigate.As a matter of facts, Olbers posited the universe to be unlimited.But when we consider the celestial dome containing the stars we can contemplate at night, we all know it contains an unlimited number of celestial bodies but is not an unlimited space.
Since in our brain, due to the deep circumvolutions of our encephalon, there are more than 80 billion neurons, many people like saying that there are as many neurons in the human brain as stars in the Milky Way. And why not? I dare say, the number of stars should actually be much more.
The unlimited universe
Many people ask: “Is there any edge to the Universe?” Probably you all, and for many a good reason, imagine the universe to be unlimited. Anyway, and just for now at least, it would be better to limit the inquiry to our single cosmos. Just the one we are living inside. So, today I was going to focus my lecture to the exterior boundaries of the firmament above us. I mean, the different layers of the dome protecting the earth.
The cat’s eyes and Olbers’ paradox solution
Another important function that this watery-spongy layer should perform is light refraction. For instance, think of the role performed in the nocturnal animals eye by the tapetum lucidum. It allows them to increase six times their sight, in the partial dark of the night. Anyway, the tapetum lucidum couldn’t work in the absolute dark nor in the bright daylight. So the Olbers’ paradox solution could be that we see the stars through the trabecular meshwork of the dome and that they couldn’t be seen without the help of the partial dark of the night.
Of course much more could be said about this topic, but for now, I feel like to stop. I just want to say that it is half past nine o’clock of the morning. Besides, I’ve been writing since about three o’clock in the night, so that is a bit tiring and I want to say goodbye to all my friends. So long.