Phenomena in the optical glassy dome

 Very bright light phenomena in Fargo, North Dakota. Also visible are parts of the 22° halo (the arcs passing through each sundog), a sun pillar (the vertical line) and the parhelic circle (the horizontal line).

Cicero and the double sun

A passage in Cicero‘s On the Republic (54–51 BC) is one of many by Greek and Roman authors who refer to sun dogs and similar phenomena:

Be it so, said Tubero. Since you invite me to a discussion and present the opportunity, let us first examine, before anyone else arrives. Let’s examine what can be the nature of the parhelion, or double sun, which they mentioned in the Senate. Those that affirm they witnessed this prodigy are neither few nor unworthy of credit. So I believe that there is more reason for investigation than incredulity.

Halos phenomena of sun and moon

Today we’ll be going to talk about some atmospheric optical phenomena. They are also known as halos of sun or moon, including sun dogs and other magnificent explosions of light and colors. At school, they teach light is reflected and refracted by the ice crystals. They are suspended in the atmosphere and may split up into colors because of dispersion. The crystals behave like prisms and mirrors. They refract and reflect light between their faces, sending shafts of light in particular directions.

The 22° halo and the Brocken Bow

Among the most well-known halos phenomena is the 22°halo. It is formally called “parhelia”.  The singular parhelion comes from Greek παρήλιον (parēlion), meaning ‘beside the sun’. This is from παρά (para), meaning ‘beside’, and ἥλιος (Helios), meaning ‘sun’. It appears as a large ring around the sun or the moon with a radius of about 22°. Similar amazing phenomena that can appear on a misty mountainside are called the Brocken Bows. They are the apparently enormous and magnified shadow cast upon the upper surfaces of clouds opposite the sun as a glowing ring of glory.

Refraction and reflection of light

Why do these phenomena appear? They are due to the refraction and reflection of light. Considering this subject, a source says: ” As the ice crystals gently float downwards with their large hexagonal faces almost horizontal, sunlight is reflected horizontally and sun dogs are seen”. So, accordingly, to the scientist community, sun halos and sundogs are caused “by gently and horizontally falling ice particles splitting up sun lights in its spectral colors”. There’s just one problem with this statement. Ice particles regardless of their shape only sporadically fall that way. On the contrary, they fall spinning, changing direction according to interaction with the medium air, never gently and horizontally, thus scattering the light. When all spectral colors scatter they make perfect white. However, ice and water particles can act as a screen for each spectral color individually if the light is split up at a point between the light source and the particles.

Light passing through different densities

When there’s a glass between the light source and the observer,  going through the glass the ray of light actually does slow down. That slowing down causes some particular phenomena: the splitting of the rays into different colors. The angle and the wavelength at which the light enters a substance and the density of that substance determine how much the light is reflected. When light passes from a less dense to a more dense substance, the light is refracted away from the normal. The bending occurs because light travels more slowly in a denser medium. An example of refraction is the dispersion of white light into its individual colors by a glass prism.

Colors out of a prism

As visible light exits the prism, a  refraction, and separation into a magnificent display of colors will occur. Each color from the original beam of light has its own particular wavelength and glass is able to slow each wavelength. The number of reflections increases as the wavelength of light decreases. The shorter wavelength of light (violet and blue) slow more. Consequently, they experience more bending than do the longer wavelengths (orange and red). So the colors separate when they first enter the glass at an angle. That’s because light interacts with the electrons of the glass in different ways. But, when there’s no glass between the source of the light and the observer, no spectral colors are visible nor halo around it.


The smooth curve of the dome

Now, the light from the sun and the moon is split, but light only gets split when there is an angle. Air generally cannot bend light at an angle, only in a smooth curve as the thickness of the atmosphere would increase towards the earth.

The rainbow

There is no way to split light unless it passes through a solid and transparent medium. And here I want to consider the rainbow. You have probably noticed something when watering your garden. With the right conditions and the sun angled the right way,  by the aid of a sprinkler, you can create a rainbow through the water drops. Now there’s a question:  why can you not simulate a rainbow indoor? You can create a rainbow indoor but you need a mirror. Without a mirror, you cannot make a rainbow indoor. So when you need a mirror indoor what provided a mirror outdoors? Answer: necessarily there is glass somewhere between the sun and the water and the ice particles.

We can see a rainbow when it rains or after the rain if the sun is at the right. What causes a rainbow? It is due to refraction and dispersion of light by raindrops. When it rains or immediately after rains there are thousands of raindrops floating around in the air. These water droplets which are nearly spherical in shape, act as tiny prisms and split the sunlight into its constituent colors. When these reach our eyes, we see a rainbow.


All these facts confirm the statement in Genesis 1:16 about the transparent firmament put in the midst of the waters and dividing the waters from the waters. The waters below are flat, since water is always flat, but the solidity that divides the waters is the glass dome. Atmospheric refraction is technically not possible without a solid extension above the earth. I’ll add only a verse from Job in addition: “Can you beat out the skies, hard like a molten mirror?” (Job 37:18) and this is not simply great poetry.

Soon we are going to publish a book regarding Flat Earth:

Dossier 111 – The real measures of the flat Earth 

(edited by


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