The sun over the flat Earth is cold – the Ranque effect

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A cold core in the sun. This is something you never imagined before. After this investigation, you will be certainly surprised.

About the trajectory and dimensions of the sun, I have already discussed. I want now to express my opinion about the thermoelectric reactions occurring inside the core of the sun.  Academic science posits that inside the sun you could measure a temperature of about 15 million degrees while on the surface you will find a heat of 5700°K. The same academic science postulates that the sun is 150 million kilometers far away from the Earth.  But, I feel we have the right to say these data are wrong.

There are no doubts, the heat of the sun has been overestimated. You can determine the surface temperature by the aid of spectroscopy and you can achieve a rough measurement. But, as far as the nucleus temperatures are involved, you can only get theoretical hypotheses. You certainly know how doubtful this sort of hypotheses is. Science says that in the sun’s core a nuclear fusion reaction takes place, similar to that occurring inside the stars.

Nuclear fusion

Mainstream scientists suppose that a similar ordinary fusion was the one occurring inside the Fat Man, the H Bomb. For many years scientists have been trying to achieve a nuclear reactor, in order to benefit, for peaceful purposes, of the advantages of the nuclear fusion. But, till now, doing that has not been possible. This is due to a number of technical problems, that are enormous.  The fusion temperatures needed are very high, near 100 million degrees. When you think that the steel is melting at 1500°C, you can understand what sort of a challenge is that.  Getting a tank able to contain and resist the nuclear reactions is a real challenge.

In the reaction, nuclei of the light elements like hydrogen get fused together by means of very high temperatures. As a result, from fusion, heavier elements like helium can originate. The resulting elements, however, have a mass that is less than the sum of the masses of the hydrogen nucleus involved. The difference in weight is transformed into energy. There are three isotopes of hydrogen that are the normal hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. All nuclei of the three elements contain a proton. Deuterium contains also a neutron, while the tritium contains two neutrons. All the three elements have an electron necessary for the compensation of the proton charge.

When a tritium atom reacts with a deuterium one, you can witness to the formation of helium with the release of energy. The two nuclei react only if they achieve to be very close. In these cases, the nuclear forces are stronger than the electrostatic repulsion forces. To achieve such a short distance, the nuclei must be hit with a very high speed. Hence they will possess a greater energy, obtained through the application of very high temperatures and pressures.

Raising doubts

To obtain this reaction in the sun, science states every second 594 million tons of hydrogen is transformed into 590 million tons of helium. However, official science has proved many times to be wrong. So, I feel we have the right to be suspicious. I mean that there are serious doubts about the official description of the core of the sun and the reactions developing inside.

I recently happened to learn something more about the Dutch astronomer William Herschel. He lived between 1738 and 1822 and in 1781 he discovered Uranus. Moreover, he suggested some hypothesis about nebulae, postulating they are at the origin of the formation of stars. However, sometimes he is criticized for a supposed big mistake he did. He postulated the fact that the core of the sun is cold and that the resulting heat is only a superficial reaction.

The Ranque effect

Obviously today this is an idea totally unconsidered. But we have to take into account that the sun is very near to the Earth, and this fact is neglected as well. I was wondering what could be the physical principle involved. After some thought, I found it: the Ranque effect. This is an important physical effect totally underestimated today. I can explain it this way.  A mass of gas will get colder and colder in the zone nearer to the rotation axis while it will get hotter and hotter in the external part. This will happen independently from the initial conditions of temperature and density. It will be the attended result when a physical cause, putting the gas in motion, interferes with an axial rotation.

The French physicist Georges Ranque discovered this physical principle in 1933.This is the procedure he followed. You can start blowing air radially into a tube and generate a vortex. Then you notice that the air coming out from one extremity of the tube is colder or warmer than the inlet air. So you realize that it is depending on where, in the flux, the outlet air is spilled. It is a consequence of the fact that the air is spilled in the center or in the outer part of the flux. The vortex in the tube seems to operate a dynamical separation between the warmer and the colder molecules of the air. This effect is so effective and macroscopic that it is often used in the industry to create cooling systems for tooling machines and electrical boxes.  However, the physical principle at the basis of this phenomenon is not totally understood. We know that the external part of the vortex gets warmer.

The Ranque effect in meteorology

The same physical principle can apply to meteorology. Think of the air cooling that develops at the center of vortexes. They form where two different air layers, one over the other, succeed in producing the condensation of water steam. This way they create the hailstone. We can think that in the process of formation of typhoons the Ranque effect has a very important role.

Sidereal periods

We know from spectroscopy that the sun is a rotating body made of gas. We know that it rotates because there is a red shift of the light arriving from the est edge of the sun that is moving toward us. Comparing this light with the waves arriving from the west side, we know the rotation rate of the sun. To be noticed is the synodic period of this rotation. It corresponds to 27,27 days, which is almost equal to the sidereal period of the moon, 27,32 days. The rotation probably causes the heating of the surface till the 5700°K, while the core is probably cold enough to solidify into some vitreous matter. We have thus a sphere with a hot external surface hot and a cold vitreous core.

The Seebeck effect

This difference of temperature between the surface and the core causes another phenomenon. We find in the sun hydrogen and helium that move from the core to the surface that are at so different temperatures. This generates due to the Seebeck effect a current flux.

It has been the Italian Volta to discover first the Seebeck effect. He realized that if you have to put two materials in contact forming a sort of circuit like that in the picture. When two points stay at different temperatures T1 and T2, an electric current starts to flow between due to their different temperature situation. We have thus a flux of current that flows between the core and the surface of the sun. This current can be the start of a series of chemical reactions probably also of nuclear kind. I think of cold fusion reactions that can be able to grow up, even more than the outer temperatures of the sun.

The cold fusion

I report here some information about  the cold fusion:

Nuclear reactions are normally initiated using neutrons or high-energy elemental particles. The process taking place under these conditions is well known and is the basis for the field called nuclear physics. When a plasma1 is used to produce fusion between two deuterons, the process is called “hot fusion”. This reaction is known to emit neutrons2 and produce tritium3 in equal amounts. Past experience and established theory have demonstrated that nuclear reactions cannot be initiated without application of significant energy because the charge barrier between nuclei, called the Coulomb barrier4, cannot be overcome any other way. Neutrons can pass through the barrier because they do not have a charge. However, neutrons are normally made by processes that are well understood and they are not known to exist as free particles in ordinary materials. Profs. Pons and Fleischmann, and others since then propose that nuclear reactions can be initiated without extra energy or application of neutrons just by creating a special solid material in which deuterium is present, the so-called nuclear active environment (NAE). When fusion of deuterium takes place in this environment, they claim the main product is ordinary helium5 rather than neutrons and tritium. In addition, subsequent studies claim that more complex nuclear reactions can occur that are able to convert one element into another, a process for which the Coulomb barrier is even greater than between deuterium nuclei. Conventional theory cannot explain such claims and the observations have been difficult to reproduce. These two facts are used to reject the claims. In addition, some claims can be explained as being caused by error or unrecognized prosaic processes. As a result, many scientific journals will not publish papers on the subject and the US Patent and Trademark Office is very reluctant to issue patents based on such claims.

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