The Earth’s unreachable deepness

After an extensive search around the Earth and its celestial vault, the stars, the sun, and the moon, time is coming to inquire about the inner parts of the deepness we are living upon, the earth’s underground. I’ve delayed as much as possible to face this subject. It seemed to me rather hard to describe what we cannot see and measure. When I had to express about the dome or the sun, things were different. They are observable entities and you can describe their motion with exact formulas over the flat earth.

A hole deep 12 km

On the other hand, the deepest hole made into the ground, up to now, was made in Russia and it went deep 12 km. This hole couldn’t give much information because it was just an exploration into the crust, the most superficial layer of the earth, that can extend from 50 to 150 km deep.

Only a few experimental facts

As a start, I had to consider what the official science has to say about the core of the Earth. So, I studied Geology and Geophysics in order to find reliable data. But  I found there is a lot of hypotheses but not so many experimental facts.

Anyway, to reach the correct conclusions about the Earth I have to take into account only experimental facts. So, first of all, I’ll start by considering the set of data I sketched in my basic model. I think this is capital to understand how the Earth is made in its interior. In addition, this will be a starting point to better understand the cycle of the water. Thanks to this cycle we derive the rotation of the dome and, consequently, the motion of all celestial bodies.

Understanding the magnetic field of the earth

Besides, it will be essential to understanding how the magnetic field of the Earth originates. This magnetic field is absolutely pivotal because it generates the eddy currents of the dome. They are responsible for the vortex of ether that moves the celestial bodies and gives rise to the gravity force.

Seismology

As a start, I would like to try speaking about the results seismology has reached. These are results that you can keep as valid due to the fact they are experimentally obtained. Seismology studies how seismic waves propagate in the inside of the Earth. This study makes it possible to understand the physical properties of the materials inside which the waves propagate. When an earthquake occurs, some wave moves only on the surface of the Earth, but others move inside. We can divide these waves into two groups: the P (primary) waves, the faster and the S, or secondary waves, that move slower.

P waves and S waves

The P waves are pressure, longitudinal waves similar to the sound waves. They can move both through solid or liquid means. On the other hand, the S waves are transversal and can move only through solids. This is because they need a kind of material able to resist shear stresses.

The mantle of the earth is solid

The passage of both wave types in all the thickness of the mantle proves that this is solid. With depth, however, temperature increases. All miners well know this fact. In the underground the temperature increases of one degree for every hundred meters. The mantle remains however solid for a great depth, due to the increase in pressure that matches the increase in temperature.

Liquid lava

But, if the mantle is solid, why does liquid lava exit out of rifts and volcanoes? In points where the Earth cracks or opens there is a sudden release of pressure. This proves to be a factor making it impossible to compensate for the increase of temperature with depth. So lava forms only under the crust in a small zone where it cracks, but generally, the asthenosphere, the superior layer of the mantle, is solid.

asthenosphere

The external core

Under the mantle, the S waves find it impossible to cross. They are blocked. This can prompt us to say that there is a liquid layer under the solid mantle. Science states that this layer, called external core, is formed by iron and nickel. But how can they prove this? I believe that to derive this data only from the propagation speed of the P wave could appear just a little hasty. Moreover, they were able to reach this conclusion by making gravitational calculations. According to these calculations they claim they established the Earth density. So, starting from this set of data they pretend to affirm the core of the Earth is made for the major part of iron.

A liquid layer under the mantle

We know however that Newtonian gravitation is wrong and all data calculated with Newton’s formula can’t be correct. So the only point we can actually accept is that there is a liquid layer under the mantle and that this is a low viscosity liquid.

The inner core

A further deviation, due to refraction of the P waves, shows another layer that scientists call the inner core. It is the solid center of the globular Earth. We can infer from this that there is a solid layer under the liquid one.

The precise speed and direction of the waves through the mantle depend on the physical properties of the material they move through. Where the material tends to be liquid the waves slow down. This way scientists can imagine the asthenosphere as a plastic layer, solid but not completely hard.

If you ask me, I’m especially interested in the external core, the liquid layer because there we can find the origin of the magnetic field. To clarify a little let’s see something more about this field.

The geomagnetic field

Wikipedia states: Earth’s magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth’s interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun. Its magnitude at the Earth’s surface ranges from 25 to 65 microteslas (0.25 to 0.65 gauss).[3] Approximately, it is the field of a magnetic dipole currently tilted at an angle of about 11 degrees with respect to Earth’s rotational axis, as if there were a bar magnet placed at that angle at the center of the Earth. The North geomagnetic pole, located near Greenland in the northern hemisphere, is actually the south pole of the Earth’s magnetic field, and the South geomagnetic pole is the north pole. The magnetic field is generated by electric currents due to the motion of convection currents of molten iron in the Earth’s outer core driven by heat escaping from the core, a natural process called a geodynamo.

A reversal in the geomagnetic poles

While the North and South magnetic poles are usually located near the geographic poles, they can wander widely over geological time scales, but sufficiently slowly for ordinary compasses to remain useful for navigation. However, at irregular intervals averaging several hundred thousand years, the Earth’s field reverses and the North and South Magnetic Poles relatively abruptly switch places. These reversals of the geomagnetic poles leave a record in rocks that are of value to paleomagnetists in calculating geomagnetic fields in the past. Such information, in turn, is helpful in studying the motions of continents and ocean floors in the process of plate tectonics.

The magnetosphere

The magnetosphere is the region above the ionosphere that is defined by the extent of the Earth’s magnetic field in space. It extends several tens of thousands of kilometers into space, protecting the Earth from the charged particles of the solar wind and cosmic rays that would otherwise strip away the upper atmosphere, including the ozone layer that protects the Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation.

Earth’s core and the geodynamo

Some electrically conducting fluid

The Earth and most of the planets in the Solar System, as well as the Sun and other stars, all generate magnetic fields through the motion of electrically conducting fluids.[47] The Earth’s field originates in its core. This is a region of iron alloys extending to about 3400 km (the radius of the Earth is 6370 km). It is divided into a solid inner core, with a radius of 1220 km, and a liquid outer core.[48] The motion of the liquid in the outer core is driven by heat flow from the inner core, which is about 6,000 K (5,730 °C; 10,340 °F), to the core-mantle boundary, which is about 3,800 K (3,530 °C; 6,380 °F).[49] The heat is generated by potential energy released by heavier materials sinking toward the core (planetary differentiation, the iron catastrophe) as well as the decay of radioactive elements in the interior. The pattern of flow is organized by the rotation of the Earth and the presence of the solid inner core.[50]

Dynamo

The mechanism by which the Earth generates a magnetic field is known as a dynamo.[47] The magnetic field is generated by a feedback loop: current loops generate magnetic fields (Ampère’s circuital law); a changing magnetic field generates an electric field (Faraday’s law), and the electric and magnetic fields exert a force on the charges that are flowing in currents (the Lorentz force).[51] These effects can be combined in a partial differential equation for the magnetic field called the magnetic induction equation.

The magnetic induction equation

where u is the velocity of the fluid; B is the magnetic B-field; and η=1/σμ is the magnetic diffusivity, which is inversely proportional to the product of the electrical conductivity σ and the permeability μ.[52] The term ∂B/∂t is the time derivative of the field; ∇2 is the Laplace operator and ∇× is the curl operator.

The first term on the right-hand side of the induction equation is a diffusion term. In a stationary fluid, the magnetic field declines and any concentrations of field spread out. If the Earth’s dynamo shut off, the dipole part would disappear in a few tens of thousands of years.[52]

The frozen-in-field theorem

In a perfect conductor ({\displaystyle \sigma =\infty \;}), there would be no diffusion. By Lenz’s law, any change in the magnetic field would be immediately opposed by currents, so the flux through a given volume of fluid could not change. As the fluid moved, the magnetic field would go with it. The theorem describing this effect is called the frozen-in-field theorem. Even in a fluid with a finite conductivity, the new field is generated by stretching field lines as the fluid moves in ways that deform it. This process could go on generating new field indefinitely, were it not that as the magnetic field increases in strength, it resists fluid motion.[52]

Compositional convection

The motion of the fluid is sustained by convection, motion driven by buoyancy. The temperature increases towards the center of the Earth and the higher temperature of the fluid lower down makes it buoyant. This buoyancy is enhanced by chemical separation: As the core cools, some of the molten iron solidifies and is plated to the inner core. In the process, lighter elements are left behind in the fluid, making it lighter. This is called compositional convection. A Coriolis effect, caused by the overall planetary rotation, tends to organize the flow into rolls aligned along the north-south polar axis.[50][52]

A T-Tauri phase

A dynamo can amplify a magnetic field, but it needs a “seed” field to get it started.[52] For the Earth, this could have been an external magnetic field. Early in its history, the Sun went through a T-Tauri phase in which the solar wind would have had magnetic field orders of magnitude larger than the present solar wind.[53] However, much of the field may have been screened out by the Earth’s mantle. An alternative source is currents in the core-mantle boundary driven by chemical reactions or variations in thermal or electric conductivity. Such effects may still provide a small bias that is part of the boundary conditions for the geodynamo.[54]

The average magnetic field in the Earth’s outer core proves to be 25 gausses, 50 times stronger than the field at the surface.[55]

Gauss hypothesis

Gauss made the hypothesis that the magnetic field could be generated by a permanent magnet positioned in the middle of the Earth. Anyway, this appears to be impossible due to the high temperatures reached in the depths of the Earth. Magnets have in fact a limit in the working temperature called Curie temperature. After this temperature is overcome the magnet is no more active. So the dynamo effect about which you have just read above has to be considered the more valid alternative.

Expressing some personal disagreement

Is this dynamo effect a valid theory to be put in harmony with the Earth’s model I have developed till now? I have some doubt. For example, I cannot agree with the hypothesis that the composition of the external core would be made of iron and nickel. The inner core is, in my opinion, the external solid basin that extends in a long column or tunnel under the North Pole. There a magnetic column gets its origin.

Thus, I’d like to conclude that this basin is formed by Iron in the form of its oxide Fe3O4, i.e. magnetite. But what about temperatures? I agree about the fact that in the mantle, temperatures get very high, but in the lower layers, something different probably happens. I will continue discussing this subject in a further article.

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