Cold fusion in the sun

In order to make me understand, I would like to remind my reader what I said in a past article about the sun. Please check http://earthmeasured.com/sun-flat-earth-cold-ranque-effect/ where I was stating that the inside of the sun is cold. The theorized 15 million degrees are just imagination. Due to the Ranque effect, the core of the sun is colder than its surface. As a consequence of such a difference in temperature, according to the side-reactions implicit in the Seebeck effect, a difference in potential between surface and core will come up in the sun. This will generate a current granting the necessary energy to activate the cold fusion reactions that give energy to the sun and heat the surface.

Correcting some hypothesis

In this article, I have to correct one of the hypotheses I made in the post mentioned above. I was there postulating that the surface temperature of the sun could be calculated according to the laws of the black body diagram. The sun, according to this theory, would have a surface temperature of 5700 Kelvin, which could be deduced by its color. I maintain, however, as I have done in the past when discussing the stars, that such a relationship between color and temperature is valid only for incandescent bodies. Many other kinds of luminescence, besides incandescence, are however possible, like bioluminescence, chemiluminescence, or radioluminescence.  I will prove that a surface temperature of 5700K is not compatible with a solar disc that is only 3-6 thousands of kilometers higher over the ground.

This error of mine is a clear example showing the influence of official science upon an objective personal thinking. It is something happening just due to the conceptual innovations connected to the unusual framing in which the flat earth has to be imagined. New formulations will differ from all current premises. You need to eliminate a great deal of prejudice while proceeding with brand new ideas. Thus, I have to follow a most objective way of thinking.

To start, I’ll try to get deeper into the cold fusion hypothesis. Then, in a further article, I will manage to describe what reactions radio-luminescence can produce in the sun. Only at the end, I will be able to calculate the real temperatures of the sun. Let’s see.

Fusion is not fission

Fusion is not fission. Fission operates on big atoms. For the precision, those with big atomic numbers. It means they have a lot of protons and neutrons. So they are bombed with particles that divide them and produce energy. On the contrary, fusion works on small atoms, like hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium. Fusion works to unite two nuclei. This way they will have a release of a part of the bonding energy. It is the power that keeps united the nucleons together.  Deuterium and tritium are two isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen has only one proton. Deuterium has one proton and one neutron; tritium has one proton and two neutrons and is radioactive: it decays within a decay time of 12,5 years, becoming helium3 and emitting electrons. It is not, however, very dangerous to health.

Fusion can be obtained with these reactions between two deuterium atoms:

deuterium+deuterium=>helium 4 excited, with energy in excess of 24 millions of electronvolts (MeV). The production of one joule of energy requires thus 2,6×1011 fusions. The helium4 excited decays with these reactions:

First:     Helium4 excited=>tritium+proton  (50% of probability)

Second:Helium4 excited=>Helium 3 +neutron  (50% of probability)

Third:   Helium4 excited=>normal helium 4 + γ ray  (one millionth of probability)

 

There should be for each joule of energy produced hundreds of billions of neutrons and of tritium nuclei.

Hot fusion reached by extremely high temperatures

Currently, researchers think to obtain the fusion by using extremely high temperatures of about 100 million degrees and enormous pressures. Technicians have to use special reactors clad with powerful magnets. This way they will maintain the hot fluid, kept at very high temperatures, far from the walls of the reactor. Failure of doing this way, the walls of the reactor at the contact with the fluid would be immediately destroyed.

This field of research for the nuclear fusion has attracted a lot of funds and resources. Anyway, results till now have not been conclusive.  Producing energy enough to pay for the enormous efforts necessary to reach the required 100 million degrees will prove to be a real challenge.

Cold fusion confirmed all over the world

Cold fusion is different. It has been discovered initially by Fleischmann and Pons in 1989 in the USA. It was immediately discredited. The establishment didn’t want to see diminished an enormous amount of funds going for hot fusion research. But cold fusion has been confirmed by dozens of independent researching groups all over the world.

Deuterium and palladium in a 1:1 ratio

The functioning principle is simple and very different from that of the hot fusion. By using electrolysis proceedings deuterium atoms contained in heavy water, are introduced in the crystalline reticulum of a palladium cathode.

Deuterium density in palladium has to be very high. You have to reach a ratio 1:1 of deuterium with palladium because cold fusion is a threshold phenomenon and doesn’t start if this ratio has not been respected.

This is the reason why, in the beginning, a lot of researchers failed in achieving the experiment: the deuterium charging phase is difficult and very long. But researchers didn’t understand immediately that they had to reach a so high concentration of deuterium in the palladium. Besides palladium, an ensemble of other materials has been used. Cold fusion effects have been detected when using titanium, hafnium, uranium but also tungsten cathode.

Electronic plasma like movement

Once deuterium has been charged, fusion occurs because of the tension applied. Electrons of palladium, due to this tension, oscillate all together doing a coherent movement that is like electronic plasma. This plasma enters in resonance with the oscillating deuterium atoms. It will produce energy enough to lead two deuterium atoms very close. This way they will be able to win the Coulomb repelling forces that are consequent to the charge of protons and fuse together. Deuterium atoms are already very near due to the high concentration in the cathode. The resonance gives the last push. This happens with a release of energy that is bigger than the energy used to start the nuclear reactions.

My hypothesis is that cold fusion reactions are occurring within the sun. Is there palladium in the sun? We have to start some other consideration before to be able to tell.  The first consideration to do is that the sun produces not only heat and light but also an enormous magnetic rotating field. It develops in the form of an Archimedes spiral turning around the sun. This is called heliospheric current sheet.

The heliospheric current sheet.

About this current Wikipedia states: The heliospheric current sheet is the surface within the Solar System where the polarity of the Sun‘s magnetic field changes from north to south. This field extends throughout the Sun’s equatorial plane in the heliosphere. The shape of the current sheet results from the influence of the Sun’s rotating magnetic field on the plasma in the interplanetary medium (Solar Wind).[4] A small electrical current flows within the sheet, about 10−10 A/m². The thickness of the current sheet is about 10,000 km near the orbit of the Earth.

The underlying magnetic field is called the interplanetary magnetic field, and the resulting electric current forms part of the heliospheric current circuit. The heliospheric current sheet is also sometimes called the interplanetary current sheet.

What happens to the neutrons?

This picture recalls to the mind of the readers the Moebius magnetic strip-shaped by the sun in the Van Allen belt and generating the moon phases.

 

We wonder what could be at the origin of this magnetic field around the sun.

Another consideration has to do with the neutrons that get produced by the fusion reactions.  What happens to them? The sun is near to the Earth but neutrons do not arrive till here.

To solve these problems we need to pinpoint a material able to stay on the basis of the reactions into the sun.  It will be found in holmium.

 

The highest magnetic momentum in nature

Holmium is a rare earth element like hafnium. At certain high temperatures,  holmium oxidizes forming an oxide that becomes orange or fiery red if illuminated with a cold fluorescent light beam. This variation is due to the emission bands of ions of this element that acts like phosphors. It is an element with unusual magnetic properties. It has the highest magnetic momentum existing in nature. Due to its magnetic characteristics, physicists use holmium is to produce the highest artificial magnetic fields. Combined with yttrium holmium produces compounds with very high magnetic characteristics. Since it can easily absorb neutrons, technicians use it in nuclear reactors to make control bars for fission reactions.

Holmium can be thus the material responsible for the characteristics of the sun: it can generate a powerful magnetic field and can absorb neutrons. But it is interesting also because its ions act like phosphors. Phosphors are substances that generate the optical phenomenon of phosphorescence after being exposed to light or energetic particles like electrons. We will explain in some next article why this characteristic can be very important inside our flat Earth model. Bye, Bye, my reader.

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