In 1929 an American astronomer, Edwin Hubble(1889-1953), announced that almost all galaxies seem to step far away. He posited that the universe is expanding and that galaxies are departing one from the other. Hubble could postulate this phenomenon after examining the redshift of the radiation emitted from the galaxies.

The redshift is due to the Doppler Effect. According to this event, a light wave coming from a moving object, that is departing from the observer, tends to lengthen its wavelength. This means that the frequency band will get longer toward the wavelength of the red light. Red light has a wavelength longer than the blue light.

# The receding of a galaxy

This redshift seems to get greater for further galaxies. As a result, galaxies that are staying further are those moving faster in this departing movement. The speed of departing (or receding) of a galaxy is mathematically expressed with the formula V=H+d where V is the departing speed of the galaxy in the sight direction, d is the distance of the galaxy from the Earth and H is a constant called “Hubble constant”. Scholars believe that this constant values 65km/sec for each Megaparsec of distance (one Megaparsec is a 3.26×10^{6} light year). This means that a galaxy distant one Megaparsec from the Earth is stepping away at a speed of 65 km/sec. The Hubble constant is giving the expansion rate of the universe.

# Calculating the distance of a galaxy

By saying this, we can conclude that to give the distance of a far galaxy with a certain approximation should be possible. It would be enough to measure the speed of the galaxy as a result of the Doppler shift. By taking the light spectrum of a far celestial object, like a galaxy, astronomers can detect a shift of the spectral rows and from this they will be able to determine its speed, departing in respect of us. Knowing this speed and applying the Hubble formula they can calculate the distance of the galaxy.

In a different reference system, I mean the flat earth universe, however, we should be fully aware that space is limited in its dimensions. Everything is kept inside the vault of a dome containing all the stars and galaxies. As you certainly can remember, they are nothing else than populations of bioluminescent beings. The radius of this vault, in which all stars are set, is of about 26000 km and from this datum, we can understand that talking of Megaparsec is totally crazy.

# Inside the dome, stars have different distances

However, even thus, to state that stars can be more or less far from a certain observer, can be admissible. This is clear if we consider that the dome is a hemisphere and stars can be seen from different points of it. If the declination changes (the declination is the angle that defines the height of the star from the celestial equator), the height in respect of the observer undergoes a change.

How to explain this sort of phenomenon? I’m referring to the redshift that actually has been detected and measured. How could stars, fixed on a dome, expand departing one from the other? Probably the phenomenon is real but it was not correctly understood. This is due to the wrong basis upon which science is rooted. Now, we should finally seize the possibility to correct the errors.

I have already defined, in some past articles, that there is a vortex of ether over the Earth. It reaches a decreasing speed going higher. This generates a distribution of pressure of etherons that increases in altitude. There is thus a field of force that moves etherons with an acceleration of 9,81 m/sec^{2}.

# A movement stretching the light

The ether, as we all very well know, is the mean in which the light moves. Light is a wave that puts in movement etherons. Light is a transversal or Hertzian wave, so the etherons do not move with the wave but oscillate around their medium position. It is clear that if etherons move downward with an accelerated stream, this will influence the movement of light by stretching it. Think for example of a swimming pool. You throw a stone in the water. This generates a series of waves propagating as a circle around the point where the stone enters the water. But what if a side of the pool is suddenly opened? The water accelerates to exit and, if at that moment you throw your stone, the wave will have a very different shape and it will be stretched in the direction of the stream.

We know that the speed of a wave in an elastic mean is v=λ/T, where v is the propagation speed of the wave, λ is the wavelength and T is the time between two wave crests. The wave thus runs a distance equal to the wavelength during each period T.

# Giving an example

Let’s give an example. The light that leaves a star has a length wave of 500nm. The light has a speed of 299792.458 km/sec. The star has a distance from the observer equal to 26000km, in this case. The etherons transport the light with a vertical acceleration of 9.81 m/sec^{2}. Let’s apply the formula for the accelerated movement:

We find that the light reaches the observer in 0,867 seconds. V0 is the initial speed of light, *a* is the acceleration of 9,81 m/sec^{2}, S is the distance of the star (we have supposed for this example 26000 km).

You will find that, due to this acceleration, there is a total variation of the speed of ΔV=0.850m/s. This means that the speed of light increases of 0,850 m/sec, i.e., it overcomes the Einstein’s speed limit that, as we know, it is not a reliable theory.

From the relation V0=λ0/T, we find that the period is

T=1.6678×10^{-15} seconds

By keeping in mind this period, we should obtain that, due to the acceleration, the wavelength of the light reaching the observer will be 500,0000014176475nm. This value is a little greater than the starting 500nm. There is thus a slight elongation of the light toward red. The light wave has been stretched a little by the gravity etherons stream. Red, in fact, is one extreme of the visible spectrum, with the longer wavelength, while blue is the shorter one.

# Etherons stretching the light

Anyway, in this calculation, we have not considered, until now, the fact that the air of the atmosphere in the nearest 50-100km slows a little the light.

To conclude, we can say again that the universe is not expanding and the redshift is due to the vertical ether wind that generates gravity. In this, I can agree with Einstein. Gravity bends the light but there is no curvature in space-time, only a huge ether vortex. This vortex produces a non-uniform distribution of etherons. A vertical movement of accelerated etherons arises, which stretches the light.