# The Sagnac effect and the speed of light

Gravity is an electromagnetic, etheric phenomenon caused by a non-uniform concentration of etherons in the space. This generates a force field and a consequent vertical ether wind that acts on bodies. They all have a mass with an acceleration of g=9.81m/s2 that produces a force F=m*g.

## A horizontal wind of ether  to understand the motion of the sun

We could wonder if there is another horizontal wind beside the vertical one. To answer we can consider the Sagnac effect and, in a further article, the Michelson Gale experiment. Only thus we will succeed in proving the presence of a horizontal wind of ether and we will eventually make it evident, how this is the genesis of the analemma of the sun.

## No relative motion between earth and ether

With the Michelson Morley experiment, scientists were certain they had reached the clearest verification of the fact that the ether was an outdated, non-scientific concept. The actual experiment had succeeded in showing that there is no ether wind, i.e. no relative motion between earth and ether.

## Einstein’s huge influence in XX century’s physics

The Earth had long been considered to be in motion around the sun at the speed of 30 km/s. Since no one could dare to put into doubt this postulate, Einstein achieved the goal of solving the puzzle. He was able to close the matter with some very important assertion. These had deep consequences over many developments in the field of physics researches in the course of the twentieth century.

## The speed of earth could not be measured

Einstein went to the conclusion the ether does not exist. Moreover, he posited the light speed is always the same, regardless of the reference system adopted. His explanation was that it is not possible to measure the speed of the Earth with optical tools. In his opinion, any gadget such as the interferometer used by Michelson was unable to reach that goal. Through that experiment, Michelson wanted to measure the speed of the Earth in motion around the sun. He set out to solve the puzzle by measuring the speed of the Earth with respect to the ether. The experiment did not reach such a target.

## Some farther elaboration on Einstein’s assertions

Consequently, Einstein’s conclusion was the following: the light speed is always the same no matter the reference system used. This would explain why the speed of the Earth added to the speed of light has not been measured by any experiment. Let’s try some further elaboration on Einstein’s statement.

## A torch flying on a plane

If I take my torch and lit it up, the speed of the light crossing the passage will be of about 300000km/sec. But suppose I am on a plane flying at the speed of 1000km/h. When I lit up my torch and I measure the speed of light it will always be of about 300000km/s. So, if I measure it on a plane or if I measure it from the Earth, I will always obtain the same result. This will be in open disagreement with any logic reasoning. Whoever would reach the conclusion the speed measured from the earth should be 300000km/s+1000km/h

## Explaining Sagnac’s experiment

Only being able to demonstrate that the many aforesaid Einstein’s statements are unfounded, we will be given the possibility to prove the ether is a matter of fact and the Earth is motionless. Sagnac’s experiment is the evidence we are looking for. How to explain the Sagnac effect? It is a physical phenomenon of interference discovered by the French physician Georges Sagnac in 1913. It is an asymmetry of the relative speed of two light beams that run in opposite directions the circumference of a rotating disc. To be noticed is the date of the discovery which is following the publication of the Special Relativity Theory of 1905.

## Sagnac’s annular interferometer

In this experiment, an annular interferometer was used. This aside is the image of the interferometer used by Sagnac to split a light beam into two different beams running the platform in two opposite directions. When the two opposite rays arrive again to the starting point they give an interference pattern.

## A simplified explanation

But we can try to reason on a somewhat simplified version. Let’s suppose that the platform rotates counterclockwise as in the picture. The blue beam propagates in the same verse of the rotation of the platform. The red beam moves in the opposite direction. ω is the angular speed of the rotating platform.  R is the radius of the platform coincident with the circumference run by the two light beams.

## Light beams moving on a platform

While the two rays move, the platform rotates. As a consequence, the two rays match and interfere in a point different from the starting one. They will encounter in a point moved in a counterclockwise direction, like the rotating verse. The two rays are running thus different distances in different times. The blue ray will run an entire circumference plus a fraction of a circle.

The blue ray will take thus a time

where ωR is the linear speed of the platform on the edge, where the light moves.

Here you can see an image of the interferometer.

Similarly, the red ray will run less than a circumference and will take a time

## Some calculation

We can thus obtain:

The two rays have thus a total amount of delay:

since ωR<<c.

Since the Area of the circle is A=πr2 we obtain

and the phase delay will be

We can notice that, once we have fixed the geometry of the platform (area A), and the type of radiation (wavelength λ), the fringe displacement will only depend on the angular speed of the platform ω.

## The speed of light can change

The two light beams move at the same speed: the speed of light. A ray will run a minor distance because the platform rotates toward it. This is in total disagreement with what special relativity states. Let’s imagine an observer on a fixed reference system, not rotating with the platform. In that case, which will be the resulting speed due to the movement of the platform? The light beam moving in the same verse of rotation of the platform will have a speed given by the speed of light added to the speed of platform. The amount will be more than the speed of light and this is against Einstein’s assertions.

## Light following the normal Galilean relativity

This proves that light follows the normal Galilean relativity. We can say, as a conclusion, it is not scientifically correct to state the speed of light is always the same, regardless of the reference system. This is a surprising deduction and shows that the Michelson Morley experiment should be interpreted another way.

## The earth wind and the Michelson Gale experiment

There is no measurable ether wind on Earth because the Earth is motionless. It is not possible to measure the Earth speed of 30km/s around the sun because the Earth doesn’t move around it. However, since we know that the sun moves upon the Earth, we should be able to measure the presence of an Earth wind that determines the daily motion of the sun. The speed is much lower than 30km/s but certainly, it can be measured some way.

Some year after the Sagnac discovery, Michelson repeated his experiment. This time he intended to measure the motion of the Earth around its axis and not around the sun. We will consider the results of the Michelson-Gale experiment in the following article. Coming soon. Bye, Bye, my reader.

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