The structure inside the atom: this is something I have to understand. The atom is made of a vortex of ether with a non-uniform distribution of etherons. Vortexes are able to do such things. The electron is given by an abundance of etherons while the proton is a scarcity of electrons. Abundance and scarcity are referred to the average distribution of etherons in the space.
Mass particles are behaving like waves
From DeBroglie’s experience, we know that mass particles behave like waves. The electron is a wave that develops in the more external part of the atom, over orbital that is set at fixed distances from the center. The radius of these orbits is such to have integer waves around the atom. They don’t overlap over themselves provoking auto interference and self-destruction.
An atom losing an electron
What happens at the very moment when an atom loses an electron? The electron is a negative charge. You will probably wonder on what a negative charge is. It is an abundance of etherons. This abundance is maintained by a vortex that moves etherons. It will attract them from the exterior toward the center of the charge. This is a deformation or stress of the ether around the charge. Without the vortex, we would not have the charge nor the electric field. In the exact moment when the charge moves, it produces a hydrodynamic effect on the near ether. This induced movement on the ether has a constant speed and constitutes the magnetically induced field.
An outward wind of ether
The nucleus, after losing the electron, is the positive charge. The vortex, in this case, rotates in the opposite direction, in order to produce a scarcity of etherons. The vortex continuously expels etherons from the center, creating, this way, an outward wind of ether. This is the electric field associated with the positive charge. When the proton or the positive ion and the electron reunite, the two vortexes merge together and the atom will result as possessing an overall neutral charge.
The positively charged nucleus can be made up by many protons and a neutron as well. They are kept together by the overall vortex of the nucleus. I will explain in the next future what neutrons consist of. They are neutrons because of the fact they have not a charge. They are not deviated in their motion by an electric or magnetic field.
Interesting is the experiment led by Millikan to determine the charge of the electron. He nebulized some oil ionized with x rays between the two plates of a capacitor. By varying the tension between the two plates the electric field of the capacitor changes.
The charge of the ion
E=V/d is the electric field. V is the tension and d is the distance between the two plates. The small drops move downward due to gravity. But drops are also under the action of the electric field. By regulating the electric field, Millikan said he was able to find a position of equilibrium. With a microscope fixed in its apparatus, he was able to find the tension necessary to reach the equilibrium position. With this tension, it is possible to calculate the charge of the ion: q=m*g/E.
φ and the smallest possible charge
Millikan saw that the charge of the drops was always a multiple of the same value 1.602×10-19 Coulomb that is thus the smallest possible charge, the charge of the electron. Remember that φ is 1,618.
A mass almost 2000 times smaller than the hydrogen atom
Thompson made also another experiment. He applied a magnetic field to a Crookes tube and measured the deviation of the electron due to the field. He was able, hence, to calculate the mass of the electron since he already knew the value for the charge. The calculated mass of the electron was 9.109×10-31 kg. It is a value almost 2000 times less than the smallest known atom, the hydrogen atom. The electron is thus 1836 times smaller than the proton.
An atom with a bigger number of electrons
We were, until now still here considering the situation of an atom made by an electron and a proton. Let’s see the case of a bigger atom. They have a bigger number of electrons. An electron requires a vortex that oscillates like a wave. A wave that vibrates in the ether is electromagnetic radiation. A spherical wave, once you have fixed the wavelength, can develop completely. It always develops without overlapping itself. It just stays at a certain distance from the center of the atom. This being the condition, electrons can stay only in seven different layers or electronic shells. In these shells electrons, i.e. waves in the ether, keep moving. Each of these shells will possess certain energy said energy level. Every layer can contain more than one orbital. Each orbital can contain two electrons or wave with opposite spin direction. This is the Pauli Exclusion Principle.
Seven energetic shells around the atom
There are four different kinds of orbital, s, p, d and f that will arrange in the seven energetic shells. Do you remember the cymatics figures? We set in relation the atom vortex with sound generated vibrations. There are 7 notes like 7 energetic shells around the atom.
Occupying the empty shell with lower energy
The electrons always occupy the empty shell with lower energy. Hund’s rule about the maximum multiplicity says that electrons fill all orbitals with parallel spin to semi-saturate them. Then, they complete the orbitals following the Pauli principle.
The valence electrons
To interact with the others, atoms use mostly the more external electrons, in the more external shell, called valence electrons. An external wave can be shared with other atoms that have the right electronic configuration to accept it. The vortex wave will hence become bigger to the point of reaching the power to envelope both atoms and constitute a molecule. The wave will conserve its amplitude and wave length, i.e. its energy.
The correct geometry
In order to have a resulting wave that closes without overlapping and entering in interference with itself, the atoms have to arrange within the correct geometry. They are forced to. This geometry will give the molecule its electric and chemic characteristics.
Our vortex model seems to work better and better. It can describe atoms and molecules. We have still to see something in some next article about strong and weak nuclear force.